Lpc Manpages

CONCEPT
	uids (user ids)

NOTE
	This description is only half the truth for 3.2.1, please
	referto the pages that are mentioned in the SEE ALSO section
	for more accurate information.

DESCRIPTION

	This seems to be a thing for the lpFAQ, until someone sums it
	up I'll just dump the Genesis docs (/doc/man/general/userids).

	---------------------------------------------------------------
	This file documents how the system with userids work:


	Basics
	======

	The system with userids is used to know who is responsible for
	each object in the system. The rights of an object depends on
	the rights of the userids it carries. This includes read,
	write, snoop, possess and many other things.

	Every object in the system have two separate userids. 

	uid	- This indicates who is responsible for a specific instance
		  of an object.

	euid	- This indicates who is currently responsible for the
		  objects actions (also see below: 'Driver variants').

	There is a third indirect userid, which is not stored in the
	object but is a direct function of the filename.

	cuid	- This indicates who is responsible for the sourcecode of
		  the object.

	Userids are strings, normally wizard or domain names. The
	driver has no concept of what these strings are. The name
	system is entirely up to the master object. 

	There is five efuns that is used to set and check userids:

	getuid(object)		- Get the uid of an object.

	geteuid(object)		- Get the euid of an object.

	setuid()		- Set uid = cuid for the current
				  object. The master object is queried
				  by calling 'creator_file', for the
				  cuid of the current objects filename.
	
	seteuid(userid)		- Set the euid = userid.
				  The master object is queried by
				  calling 'valid_seteuid' to see if
				  the current object has the right to
				  set its euid to the given name.

	export_uid(object)	- Set the uid of 'object' to the euid
				  of the current object. This is only
				  possible if the euid of the
				  recieving object is 0.


	Creation of objects and userids
	===============================

	When an object is loaded or cloned it is given a uid and an
	euid. There are two main rules:

	1) If getuid(creator) == cuid
		uid = euid = geteuid(creator);

	2) If getuid(creator) != cuid
		uid = cuid
		euid = 0

	Where 'creator' is the object that forces the clone/load and
	cuid is the the name returned by masters 'creator_file' for
	the new object.

	There are some specific exceptions:

	- The 'creator' must have a euid. If the euid of the creator
	  is 0 than it is not possible to load/clone new objects.

	- To be allowed to be loaded/cloned the object must have a
	  cuid. This means that the master object is queried for
	  'creator_file' and if the master does not return a string,
	  than the object is denied to be loaded/cloned.

	- If the cuid is a specific 'backbone' userid, then rule 1
	  above is applied. The 'backbone' userid is a name supplied
	  by master through the function 'get_bb_uid()'

	- When the master object is loaded, there is no creator. The
	  uid and euid of the master object is set after the object is
	  loaded and the function 'get_root_uid()' is called. The name
	  returned is used as uid and euid. This is normally the
	  string "root".

	- When the simul_efun object is loaded, there is no master
	  object loaded yet. The uid is therefore set to the string
	  "NONAME". This is the only hardcoded userid in the driver.
	  The uid and euid of the simul_efun object must be set to
	  something correct by the master object as soon as it loads.
  
	Driver variants
	===============

	Uids and euids are invented together with the NATIVE_MODE.
	If the driver is compiled for COMPAT_MODE, no uids at all are
	available. Vanilla NATIVE_MODE uses both uids and euids. If
	the driver uses neither COMPAT_ and NATIVE_MODE, just the uids
	may be used.
	However, starting with 3.2.1@47, the usage of euids has been
	decoupled from NATIVE_MODE: you can use non-NATIVE_MODE
	together with euids (it is not possible to use NATIVE_MODE
	without euids).


	*** The last is specific to Genesis not in vanilla 3.00.53 ***

	Changing of userids
	===================

	An object can change its uid and its euid. It can also change
	the uid of another object if that object has no euid.

	The following rules apply:

	1)	An object can always change its own uid to its cuid.
		This is done by the efun: setuid().

	2)	An object can always set its euid to its uid or to 0.
		This is done by: seteuid(userid)

	3)	An object can set its euid to anything that the master
		object allows. 
		This is done by: seteuid(userid), the driver then
		calls the master objects 'valid_seteuid' which returns
		true or false depending on if the operation is allowed
		or not.

	4)	An object can always set the uid of another object to
		its own euid if the other objects euid is 0. This is
		done with: export_uid(object). 


	Special considerations
	======================

	These rules are not coded into the driver but they are
	implemented in the login object and in the master object. They
	are part of the userid design but might be done differently.

	- All wizards, when logging in, gets their own name as uid and
	  euid.

	- All mortals, when logging in, gets the 'backbone' userid as
	  uid and euid.

	As objects 'inherits' their userids from the object that
	forces their load or clone some special situations may occur.

	When rooms are loaded because they are entered for the first
	time they could be loaded by any object. Normally a 'user' or
	another room. As there are 'border' cases between areas and as
	users have the 'backbone' uid, most rooms will be given
	userids according to rule 2 above. That is their uid will be
	equal to their cuid and their euid will be 0. 

	This is problematic because rooms often clone objects. To make
	this possible all rooms use the combination: 
	
		setuid(); seteuid(geteuid(this_object())); 

	to ensure that they are always capable of loading and cloning
	with the rights of the wizard who wrote the room.

	When a wizard clones or forces an object to load from another
	wizards directory rule two above applies, the same as for
	rooms. This means that if the object is to be used with the
	cloning wizards rights, the cloning wizard must actively set
	the userids in the loaded/cloned object.

	There is normally a command 'trust <ob>' for this purpose.

AUTHOR
  Johan Andersson	   | "You don`t have conversations with microprocessors
  Chalmers, Sweden	   | you tell them what to do, and then you helplessly
  Email:		   | watch the disaster when they take you literally."
  d8andjo@dtek.chalmers.se |	Sah`ot in David Brins "Startide Rising"

SEE ALSO
	native(C), creator_file(M), get_root_uid(M), valid_seteuid(M),
	objects(C), clone_object(E), geteuid(E), getuid(E), seteuid(E)