Lpc Manpages

        inline closures

        function <returntype> ( <arguments> ) : <context> { <code> }

        (: <statements> ; <expr>, ... , <expr> 🙂

        Inline closures are a way to program closures which are
        compiled at the time an object is loaded, but can access
        values from their enclosing function at runtime.


          closure factory (int arg) {
            return function int (int val) { return val * arg; };

          closure f1 = factory(2);
          closure f2 = factory(3);
          funcall(f1, 3) -> will yield 6.
          funcall(f2, 3) -> will yield 9.

        The closure here 'inherits' the current value of the local
        variable 'arg' at the time the closure is created. These
        values are called the "context" of the closures - they are
        stored in a special set of variables in the closure.

        One specific feature of the closure context is that it can be
        changed from within the closure, and that these changes remain

          closure factory (int arg) {
            return function int (int val) { return val * arg++; };

          closure f = factory(2);
          funcall(f, 3) -> will yield 6.
          funcall(f, 3) -> will now yield 9!

        But changes of the closure context will not reflect on the
        local variable it was copied from and vice versa.

        In addition to the implicite context inherited from the
        defining function, additional context variables can be defined
        in the closure:

          closure factory (int arg) {
            return function int (int val) : int x = 2 * arg
                                          { return val * x; };

          closure f = factory(2);
          funcall(f, 3) -> will yield 12.

        It is possible to define multiple context variables with and
        without initialisation:

          closure factory (int arg) {
            return function int (int val) : int y, x = 2 * arg;
                                            int z
                                          { return val * x; };

        These explicite context variables are useful when the closures
        needs to keep a state, or to improve performance:

          mapping m = ...;
          closure slow (int arg) {
            return function mixed () { return m[arg]; }
          closure fast (int arg) {
            return function mixed () : mixed val = m[arg] { return val; }

        In the above example, the fast() function executes the lookup
        m[arg] only once when the inline closure is created; the
        slow() function on the other hand returns a closures which
        looks up m[arg] every time it is called. A second effect is
        that the results of the slow closure change when m changes;
        the result of the fast closure is always the same.

        In the definition of an inline closure, some elements are

          <returntype>     defaults to 'mixed'
          ( <arguments> )  defaults to '(mixed $1 ...  mixed $9)'
          : <context>      no default

        The special (: 🙂 form is meant for simple expressions (and
        MudOS compatibility). The form

          (: <statements> ; <expr>, ..., <expr> 🙂

        is the shorthand notation for

          function { <statements>; return <expr>, ..., <expr>; }

        For example the two statements

          sort_array(arr, function { return $1 < $2; } )
          sort_array(arr, (: $1 < $2 🙂 )

        do the same. The example also demonstrates that both the <statements>
        and the <expr> part in this form are optional.

        The macro __LPC_INLINE_CLOSURES__ is defined when the
        inline closures as described here are available. If not
        defined, the driver implements a more restricted version
        ('(: :)' syntax only, no context variables) for backwards

        Inline closures are not to be confused with inline functions
        known from other languages.

        LDMud 3.2.7 implemented the older, restricted form of inline
        LDMud 3.3.271 implemented the full form of inline closures.
        LDMud 3.3.275 re-allowed statements in the (: 🙂 form.

        closures-abstract(LPC), closures-example(LPC), closure_guide(LPC)