Lpc Manpages

CONCEPT
        arrays

DESCRIPTION
        There is support for arrays. The arrays can't be declared, but
        should be allocated dynamically with the function 'allocate()'
        (see efun/allocate).

        Arrays are stored by reference, so all assignments of whole
        arrays will just copy the address. The array will be
        deallocated when no variable points to it any longer.

        When a variable points to an array, items can be accessed with
        indexing: 'arr[3]' as an example. The name of the array being
        indexed can be any expression, even a function call:
        'func()[2]'. It can also be another array, if this array has
        pointers to arrays:

        arr = allocate(2);
        arr[0] = allocate(3);
        arr[1] = allocate(3);

        Now 'arr[1][2]' is a valid value.

        The 'sizeof()' function (in true C a compiler-directive, not a
        function) will give the number of elements in an array (see
        efun/sizeof).

NOTE
        Nowadays it is most of the time preferable to use an array
        constructor, a list surrounded by '({' and '})',
        e.g. ({ 1, "xx", 2 }) will construct a new array with size 3,
        initialized with 1, "xx" and 2 respectively.


OPERATIONS

        INDEXING
        There are several very useful operations defined on arrays.
        The most used is the indexing:
                a=({ 0,1,2,3 });
                return a[2];      // this will return 2
        You also can count from the end of the array. Use <1 to specify
        the last element in the array:
                a=({ 0,1,2,3 });
                return a[<3];     // this will return 1
        With indexing you can also create sub-arrays:
                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 });
                return a[3..5];   // this will return ({ 3,4,5 })
                return a[2..<2];  // this will return ({ 2,3,4,5,6 })
                return a[<5..<3]; // this will return ({ 3,4,5 })
                return a[<6..5];  // this will return ({ 2,3,4,5 })
                return a[3..3];   // this will return ({ 3 })
                return a[3..2];   // this will return ({ })
                return a[3..0];   // this will return ({ })
                return a[5..100]; // this will return ({ 5,6,7 })
                [x..] is interpreted as [x..<1]

        ADDING
        You can add two arrays. The result is one array with the elements
        of both the former arrays:
                a=({ 0,1 });
                b=({ "a","b" });
                return a+b;       // this will return ({ 0,1,"a","b" })
                return b+a;       // this will return ({ "a","b",0,1 })

        SUBTRACTING
        You can erase all elements of one array that occur in another
        array:
                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 });
                b=({ 7,2,5,8,1,9 });
                return a-b;       // this will return ({ 0,3,4,6 })
                return b-a;       // this will return ({ 8,9 })

        INTERJUNCTION
        Use the &-operator to create the interjunction of two arrays:
                a=({ 5,2,8,1,9,4 })
                b=({ 1,6,7,3,4,5 })
                return a&b;       // this will return ({ 1,4,5 })

        ASSIGNING
        Assigning can also be done to sub-arrays and is thus very powerful:
                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 });
                a[<4..<3]=({ 8,9 });
                return a;         // this will return ({ 0,1,2,3,8,9,6,7 })

                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 });
                a[2..5]=({ });
                return a;         // this will return ({ 0,1,6,7 })

                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4 });
                a[3..2]=({ 8,9 });
                return a;         // this will return ({ 0,1,2,8,9,3,4 })

                a=({ 0,1,2,3,4 });
                a[3..0]=({ 8,9 });
                return a;         // this will return ({ 0,1,2,8,9,1,2,3,4 })
                                  // this is quite funny but true 😉
                                  // WARNING: If done unintentionally and
                                  // within a loop, you can quickly cause
                                  // the game to run out of memory!

        GENERAL
        Of course for any of the operators explained above you can use
        the combined form of assigning and operating; that means the
        operators +=, -= and &= work.


TIPS
        If you want to make sure that no element is more than once in an
        array you can use the following:
                a = m_indices(mkmapping(a));
        This creates a mapping out of the array and recreates the array
        at once. The elements in the array can be shuffled by this
        procedure.